Do Air Fryers Use Radiation to Cook?

Air Fryers are my go-to appliance when I want to indulge in fried, guilt-free food. It gives golden crispiness to my food without deep frying. 

While it is marketed as a healthy cooking appliance (cuts down calories due to less oil intake), there are concerns regarding its safety and if it uses radiation to cook food.

Let us find out!

Do Air Fryers Use Radiation to Cook?

No, air fryers do not use any radiation to cook food.

Air fryers work on the principle of radiated heat from the heating element, which is then circulated with the help of a high-speed fan. 

There is no involvement of electromagnetic waves in an air fryer. They do not emit or produce any waves like microwave ovens.

Let me tell you in detail how your air fryers cook food, and then we will discuss some common questions about air fryer cooking.

Also read: 8 Best Air Fryer Microwave Combos

How Do Air Fryers Cook Food Without Any Radiation?

Air fryers work on the principle of convection cooking. This is regardless of the brand or model.

The convection mode operates at a faster rate compared to a traditional convection oven. It involves the movement of air that is heated up.

The cooking process is a combination of forced heated air movement and conduction heat transfer.

To put it simply, as the heat source increases in temperature, the molecules around it heat up and rise. These are then replaced by cool molecules. This created a circulating current that distributes heat evenly.

There are two methods by which convection cooking occurs. One is natural and the other is mechanical. 

Natural Process of Convection Cooking

In this process, the molecules near the cooking area heat up and rise. The cooler molecules will be below as they are heavy.

You can observe this clearly when you boil water. The heating element on your stovetop heats up and that warms your water through conduction.

The molecules in the interior of the pot heat up first and the convection process makes them rise and move away, replacing them with cold molecules.

This constant phenomenon creates a continuous current. The heat is transferred evenly resulting in boiling water.

Mechanical Process of Convection Cooking

As the name suggests, convection cooking happens due to an outside force causing the circulation of heat.

The same method applies to a convection oven that uses a fan. The hot air is circulated over food and vented back out.

An air fryer uses the mechanical process of convection to cook your food.

The heating element generates heat. A high-speed rotating fan circulates the hot air inside the chamber above and around your food.

The basket inside the air fryer is perforated and designed to allow the hot air to reach food from below as well.

The difference between an air fryer and a convection oven is that the chamber in an air fryer is smaller and the fan rotates at a much faster pace compared to the convection oven. 

This is why the food gets cooked much faster as the hot air hits the food in a more powerful, focused way.

The speed at which your food gets cooked and the crispy texture of food depends on the size of your air fryer. The smaller the space, the more intense heat, and the quicker and crispier your food.

An air fryer can achieve a brown and crispy texture due to the Maillard effect. 

What Is a Maillard Reaction?

Maillard reaction occurs when the sugars and amino acids in your food get rearranged into a collection of rings.

The Maillard effect happens at a temperature between 280-340 degrees Fahrenheit. Not only does it brown your food, but gives the food a crispy texture.

The appearance, aroma, and flavor are just like deep-fried food.

An air fryer can achieve a  golden brown and crunchy texture for all foods. 

However, since the sugars and amino acid content is different in different food, the results are also different.

A fried fish will appear differently from baked cookies or roasted meat.

The amount of Maillard reaction differentiates between food that has been roasted, steamed, grilled, fried, or boiled.

When food is subjected to high temperatures, the rate of chemical reaction taking place inside the food increases and so the Maillard effect speeds up.

This also increases the rate of water evaporation from raw food.

What is Radiation and How to Detect it?

Radiation is an energy that travels through space and comes from a source. The basic example of radiation is sunlight. It travels through space to earth from the sun.

Similarly, there are all sorts of radiations like ultraviolet rays, radio waves, gamma rays, infrared rays, x-rays, and microwaves.

Radiation has the energy to damage your DNA and increases your chances of cancer.

The human body cannot feel radiation on the skin and neither can it see the radiating wavelengths.

You can only understand its presence by watching an X-ray film or food getting cooked in a microwave.

Here are some frequently asked questions :

Why Is Deep Frying in Oil Not Recommended?

When the oil is used at high temperatures for deep frying, certain chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs are created.

These chemicals have mutagenic properties. This means they can change your DNA and make you prone to the risk of cancer.

Also read: Air Fryer vs Deep Fryer – What’s the Difference?

Do Air Fryers Need Any Oil for Cooking?

An air dryer can cook without any oil. However, it is recommended to use a spoonful or two of oil.

Different oils have different smoking points. Depending on the demand of your recipe, use oils with high smoking points for high temperatures.

In the same manner, use oil with a medium smoking point for medium temperature. An air fryer has no space for oil.

Either brush a coat, spray it on food or mix oil along with raw ingredients before placing it inside your air fryer.

Can We Use an Air Fryer for Non-Frying Dishes?

Yes, you can comfortably use an air fryer to bake, roast, and toast food.

When it comes to baking, you can make cookies, doughnuts, lasagna, and even pizza!  You may need to purchase separate oven-friendly cookware for baking food.

You can roast any meat or veggies that you would normally grill over the grill pan. You can even toast bread.

Any vegetable or meat can be easily cooked in an air fryer. Food that is raw or frozen, whole or in chips form can be easily done in an air fryer.

The only catch is liquids. It cannot boil water or steam food. Apart from these, any food recipe is your playground inside the air fryer.

Also read: Can You Toast Bread in an Air Fryer?

Are Air Fryers Safe for Kids?

An air fryer can be safely used by younger adults and mature children who can understand how the device works and operate accordingly.

An air fryer remains cool to touch on the outside, has a cool handle and the heating element is quite above the inside.

You need to only caution them to use oven mitts while removing hot food from the air dryer basket.

Does Air Frying Destroy Food Nutrients?

All techniques of food destroy the nutrients present in raw food to some degree.

However, compared to deep-fried food, air frying food will not deplete your food nutrients at the same rate.

As the food is cooked at a faster rate, fewer nutrients are lost.

The air fryer will reduce food nutrition at a much lower rate compared to other cooking techniques.

This is because there is an increased rate of nutrient depletion in moist and oily environments. The air fryer, on the other hand, creates a dry environment.

Are Air fryers Worth Having?

Absolutely! There are many pros to owning an air fryer. They give you golden brown crispy results just like deep-fried food without oil.

This will help you to cut down on calorie intake.

There is no open flame or radiation of any sort in an air fryer. They are completely safe to use and take up very little space.

Air Fryers will give you quick results. They can be used for most of the cooking recipes except those requiring water to boil or steam.

You can clean up quickly and most baskets are dishwasher safe.

The only disadvantage is the size. A basic model of an air fryer will only be good enough for two people. If you cook in bulk or have a large family, go for large air fryer oven-shaped appliances.


Air fryers is a healthy cooking appliance. While microwaves use radiation, air fryers cook food by simply blowing hot air all around your food.

There is no radiation produced or emitted in the air fryer.

A heating element produces heat, which is then circulated with the help of a high-speed fan inside the air fryer. There is no radiation, just radiated heat from the coil inside.

With just a spoonful of oil, you can get crispy, crunchy golden-brown results just like deep-fried food.

Air frying is a completely safe and healthy cooking process that allows you to cut down calories while you enjoy your food guilt-free.

Find out your favorite food recipe and cook it in your air fryer. Happy cooking!

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I’m Jueria and I am a regular contributor on In my articles, I share time-saving techniques, appliance wizardry, and health-friendly recipes to bring taste and wellness to your table. So raise a glass (or a spatula) with me, to good health and good food, made easy!